Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming. First released in 1991, Python has a design philosophy that emphasises code readability, notably using significant whitespace.
If you don't know Python, why not try out Blockly? It's just as powerful, but lets you use a simple drag and drag interface to program the robot.
There are many resources online for learning Python, here are a few good ones.
- Student Robotics's tutorial, called Python: A whirlwind tour. This was written for Student Robotics competitors, and explains the basics while trying not to overwhelm you.
- The Official Tutorial – the good stuff starts at chapter 3, but you should at least skim the stuff before it; there is a lot there and it may be a little overwhelming.
- A number of tutorials for beginners are linked to from here.
- Learn X in Y minutes – quite nice if you've programmed before in another language and just want to learn the syntax.
- The Official Docs, for the version of python on the BrainBox.